Bliss

Heavenly JavaScript

Overview

Bliss includes several static methods (on the Bliss or $ object). For example, to copy all properties of an object onto another object, you would call $.extend():

var yolo = $.extend({foo: 1}, {bar: 2}); // or Bliss.extend(…)
// yolo is {foo: 1, bar: 2}

Many of Bliss’ methods take an element or an array of elements as their first argument. For example, to set both the width and padding of an element to 0, you could use the $.style() method:

$.style(element, {width: 0, padding: 0});

These types of methods are also available on elements and arrays, for convenience. However, since adding convenience methods to elements and arrays directly would be a JS Mortal Sin™, Bliss only adds a _ property on elements & arrays, on which it hangs all its methods, to avoid conflicts. The previous example would be written as:

element._.style({
	"width": 0,
	"padding": 0
});

Methods that are available on elements like this will have an Element tag in these docs.

If you wanted to set the width and padding of multiple elements to 0, you could use an array:

myArray._.style({
	"width": 0,
	"padding": 0
});

Methods that are available on arrays like this will have an Array tag in these docs.

For example, assume that in addition to these CSS changes you also wanted to add a hidden attribute to this element. Bliss methods that don’t return a value return the element or array they are called on, so you could call more element methods on them, including native ones:

element._.style({
	"width": 0,
	"padding": 0
}).setAttribute("hidden", "");

Now assume you also wanted to set a second attribute: The "class" attribute to "foo". The native setAttribute() method is not chainable, it returns undefined. However, all native element methods are also available on the almighty _ property, and there they are also chainable:

element._.style({
	"width": 0,
	"padding": 0
})._.setAttribute("hidden", "").setAttribute("class", "foo");

This works, but it’s a bit unwieldy. Thankfully, Bliss offers an $.attributes() method for setting multiple attributes at once:

element._.style({
	"width": 0,
	"padding": 0
})._.attributes({
	"hidden": "",
	"class": "foo"
});

This is better and more readable, but still a bit awkward. Turns out there is a special $.set() method to do both at once:

element._.set({
	attributes: {
		"hidden": "",
		"class": "foo"
	},
	style: {
		"width": 0,
		"padding": 0
	}
});

Because $.attributes() and $.style() are also available for $.set() parameters, they will have the special $.set() tag in these docs.

Note that you don’t actually need attributes: {…} in $.set() at all: if there are any unrecognized properties in the parameter object, Bliss will first check if there is a property with that name on the element and if not, set an attribute. So you could rewrite the example above as:

element._.set({
	"hidden": "",
	"class": "foo", // or "className": "foo" to use the property
	style: {
		"width": 0,
		"padding": 0
	}
});

Vanilla Methods

You don’t need Bliss or any library for any of these. All the following are 100% pure Vanilla JS! Click on the code for documentation and browser support info.

Action Vanilla JS
Adding the class "my-class" on element
element.classList.add("my-class");
Removing the class "my-class" from element
element.classList.remove("my-class");
Adding the class "my-class" on element if it doesn’t already have it and removing it if it does:
element.classList.toggle("my-class");
Checking if element contains the class "my-class"
element.classList.contains("my-class")
Removing element from the DOM
element.remove();
Checking if element contains otherElement
element.contains(otherElement)
Check if element matches selector
element.matches(selector)
Find the closest ancestor (or self) of element that matches selector
element.closest(selector)
Find next sibling of element that is a real element (not a text node or comment node):
element.nextElementSibling
Get all children of element which are real elements
element.children

Note that all vanilla methods from elements (specifically, from HTMLElement) are also available on $ as well as the _ property for both elements and arrays, so for example, to remove all divs on a page, you could write either of the following:

$$("div")._.remove();
$.remove($$("div"));

DOM

Note: The $ is just an alias to Bliss. If another library that uses $ is included before Bliss, then Bliss will not use $. You can always alias $ to Bliss manually, by putting this before any of your code (but after including Bliss):

self.$ = Bliss;

Similarly, $$() is an alias to Bliss’ $.$() or Bliss.$() function. If it’s already defined by the time Bliss is called, Bliss will not use it. You can do so manually with this line:

self.$$ = Bliss.$;

When writing Bliss plugins, if you want to use $() and $$() it’s good practice to make local variables with them, in case they’re not available:

(function($, $$){
	// Plugin code here
})(Bliss, Bliss.$)

$()

Select an element by selector. Mainly a shortcut for element.querySelector().

var element = $(selector [, context])
selector
The CSS selector to use.
context
Returned element needs to be a descendant of this element. :scope inside selector refers to this element (for supporting browsers).
element
The matched element or null if none found.
// return the first element with a class of .foo
// that is inside the first element with a class of .bar
var ret = $(".foo", $(".bar"));
// Return the first element with a class of .foo
// that is inside any element with a class of .bar
var ret = $(".bar .foo");
// Get the first element with a class of .foo
// and set its title attribute to "yolo"
// If there is no such element, this will throw an exception!
$(".foo").setAttribute("title", "yolo");
// Check if the .foo element exists
// and set an attribute by using a variable "foo"
// as a reference of the element
var foo = $(".foo");
if (foo) {
    foo.setAttribute("title", "yolo");
}
$

$$()

Get all elements that match a given selector as an array. Similar to element.querySelectorAll() but returns an Array instead of a NodeList, so it has all of the convenience methods we’ve come to love on arrays.

var array = $$(selector [, context])
selector
The CSS selector to use.
context
Returned elements need to be a descendants of this element. :scope inside selector refers to this element (for supporting browsers).
array
The matched elements as an array.
var array = $$(collection)
collection
Type: Array-like
Any array-like object, such as a NodeList, a function’s arguments object or an elements element.attributes collection.
array
The collection converted to an array.
// Add an id to all <h1> headings that don’t already have one
$$("h1:not([id])").forEach(function(h1){
	h1.id = h1.textContent.replace(/\W/g, "");
});
// Get an array with all ids on the page
var ids = $$("[id]").map(function(element){
	return element.id;
});
// Get all of an element’s attributes starting with data-bliss-
$$(element.attributes).filter(function(attribute){
	return attribute.name.indexOf("data-bliss-") === 0;
}).map(function(attribute){
	return attribute.name;
});

create

Create an element.

var element = $.create([tag,] [options]);
tag
The tag name of the element to create.
options
An object with several options for the new element (properties, attributes, events etc). For details about what options this object accepts, see $.set(). If tag is omitted, you need to provide it in the options object.
element
The newly created element.
$.create("ul", {
	className: "nav",
	contents: [
		"Navigation: ",
		{tag: "li",
		 contents: {tag: "a",
		 	href: "index.html",
		 	textContent: "Home"
		 }
		},
		{tag: "li",
		 contents: {tag: "a",
			href: "contact.html",
			textContent: "Contact",
			target: "_blank"
		}}
	]
});
var paragraph = $.create("p");
var div = $.create();

set

Set multiple traits of an element (properties, attributes, events, contents etc). One of the most useful functions in Bliss.

subject = $.set(subject, options);
subject = subject._.set(options);
subject
The element to apply the options on.
options
An object with various options, including:
*
Any remaining properties will be added as properties or attributes on the element (Bliss first checks if there is a property with that name, and if not, it sets it as an attribute.
$.set(document.createElement("nav"), {
	style: {
		color: "red"
	},
	events: {
		click: function(evt) {
			console.log("YOLO");
		}
	},
	contents: ["Navigation: ", {tag: "ul",
		className: "buttons",
		delegate: {
			click: {
				li: function() {
					console.log("A list item was clicked");
				}
			}
		},
		contents: [{tag: "li",
				contents: {tag: "a",
					href: "index.html",
					textContent: "Home"
				}
			}, {tag: "li",
				contents: {tag: "a",
					href: "docs.html",
					textContent: "Docs"
				}
			}
		]
	}],
	inside: $("body > header")
});

contents

Append existing or newly created element(s) and text nodes to an element.

subject = $.contents(subject, elements)
subject = subject._.contents(elements)
subject = subject._.set({contents: elements})
subject
The element(s) to append the elements to.
elements
If it’s an object, it will be passed through $.create(), to be converted into an element. If it’s a string or number, it will be converted to a text node. If it’s a Node it will be used as-is. If it’s an array, its elements will be processed according to the aforementioned rules. Note that this lets you recursively create entire subtrees, since these objects can also have a contents property of their own, as seen in the example below.
nav._.contents(["Navigation: ", {tag: "ul",
	className: "buttons",
	delegate: {
		click: {
			li: function() {
				console.log("A list item was clicked")
			}
		}
	},
	contents: [{tag: "li",
			contents: {tag: "a",
				href: "index.html",
				textContent: "Home"
			}
		}, {tag: "li",
			contents: {tag: "a",
				href: "docs.html",
				textContent: "Docs"
			}
		}
	]
}])
jQuery.fn.html

clone

Clone an element including its descendants, with events and data.

var clone = $.clone(subject)
var clone = subject._.clone()
subject
The element to be cloned.
clone
The cloned element.
var button = $("button");
button.addEventListener("click", function() { console.log("Click from listener!"); });
button.onclick = function() { console.log("Click from inline event!"); };
var button2 = button._.clone();
// If clicked, button2 will print both messages
jQuery.fn.clone

after

Insert an element after another.

subject = $.after(subject, element)
subject = subject._.after(element)
subject = subject._.set({after: element})
subject
The element to be inserted.
element
The element to insert after.

jQuery.fn.after

around

Wrap an element around another.

subject = $.around(subject, element)
subject = subject._.around(element)
subject = subject._.set({around: element})
subject
The element to wrap with.
element
The element to be wrapped.
// Wrap headings with a link to their section
$$("section[id] > h1, article[id] > h1").forEach(function(h1){
	$.create("a", {
		href: "#" + h1.parentNode.id,
		around: h1
	});
});
jQuery.fn.wrap

attributes

Set multiple attributes on one or more elements.

subject = $.attributes(subject, attrs)
subject = subject._.attributes(attrs)
subject = subject._.set({attributes: attrs})
subject
The element(s) to set the attributes on.
attrs
An object with the attributes and values to set.

before

Insert the element before another.

subject = $.before(subject, element)
subject = subject._.before(element)
subject = subject._.set({before: element})
subject
The element to be inserted.
element
The element to insert before.

jQuery.fn.before

inside

Insert the element inside another, after any existing contents.

subject = $.inside(subject, element)
subject = subject._.inside(element)
subject = subject._.set({inside: element})
jQuery.fn.append

properties

Set a number of properties on an element.

subject = $.properties(subject, props)
subject = subject._.properties(props)
subject = subject._.set({properties: props})
subject
The element(s) to set the properties on.
props
The properties to set on the element.
document.createElement("button")._.properties({
	className: "continue",
	textContent: "Next Step",
	onclick: function() { MyApp.next() }
});
jQuery.fn.prop

start

Insert an element inside another, before its existing contents.

subject = $.start(subject, element)
subject = subject._.start(element)
subject = subject._.set({start: element})
jQuery.fn.prepend

style

Set multiple CSS properties on one or more elements. Both camelCase and hyphen-case attributes are allowed.

subject = $.style(subject, properties)
subject = subject._.style(properties)
subject = subject._.set({style: properties})
subject
The element(s) to apply the CSS properties to.
properties
The CSS properties to apply, in camelCase format
document.body._.style({
	color: "white",
	backgroundColor: "red",
	cssFloat: "left",
	"--my-variable": 5
});
jQuery.fn.css

transition

Set multiple CSS properties with a transition and execute code after the transition is finished.

var promise = $.transition(subject, properties [, duration])
var promise = subject._.transition(properties [, duration])
subject
The element(s) to apply the transitions to.
properties
The CSS properties to apply, in camelCase format
duration
The duration, in milliseconds. Defaults to 400.
promise
Promise that gets resolved after the transition is done, or immediately if CSS transitions are not supported.
// Fade out an element then remove it from the DOM
$.transition(element, {opacity: 0}).then($.remove);
// Fade out and shrink all <div>s on a page,
// then remove them from the DOM
Promise.all($$("div")._.transition({
	opacity: 0,
	transform: "scale(0)"
})).then($.remove);
jQuery.fn.animate

Events

delegate

Helper for event delegation. Helps you register events for children at an ancestor, so that when you add children that match the provided selector, they also trigger the event.

subject = $.delegate(subject, type, selector, callback)
subject = subject._.delegate(type, selector, callback)
subject
The delegation root. Only elements inside this will fire the event.
type
The event type.
selector
The selector the target of the event needs to match.
subject = $.delegate(subject, type, selectorsToCallbacks)
subject = subject._.delegate(type, selectorsToCallbacks)
subject
The delegation root. Only elements inside this will fire the event.
type
The event type.
selectorsToCallbacks
An object of the form {selector1: callback1, …, selectorN: callbackN}.
subject = $.delegate(subject, typesToSelectorsToCallbacks)
subject = subject._.delegate(typesToSelectorsToCallbacks)
subject = subject._.set({delegate: typesToSelectorsToCallbacks})
subject
The delegation root. Only elements inside this will fire the event.
typesToSelectorsToCallbacks
An object of the form
{
	type1: {selector11: callback11, …, selector1N: callback1N},
	…
	typeM: {selectorM1: callbackM1, …, selectorMK: callbackMK}
}
.
jQuery.fn.delegate

events

Set multiple event listeners on one or more elements.

subject = $.events(subject, handlers)
subject = subject._.events(handlers)
subject = subject = subject._.set({events: handlers})
subject
The element(s) to set the event listeners on.
handlers
If object: An object whose keys are the events and the values the listeners. For details on the keys, see types below. For details on the values, see callback below. There is no way to set capturing to true if using this syntax. If it’s an element, all its event listeners are copied from it to subject.
$$('input[type="range"]')._.events({
	"input change": function(evt) { this.title = this.value},
	"focus.className": function(evt) { console.log(evt.type); }
})
subject = $.events(subject, types, callback[, capture])
subject = subject._.events(types, callback[, capture])
subject
The element(s) to set the event listeners on.
types
The event type. You can include multiple event types by space-separating them. You can add a “class” on each event type by using a period (click.myclass), which you can later use in $.unbind() for unbinding all events with a certain class at once.
callback
The function to execute. Passed directly to addEventListener.
capture
Whether to use capture or not. Passed directly to addEventListener.
jQuery.fn.bind

unbind

Unbind event listeners en masse.

subject = $.unbind(subject, handlers)
subject = subject._.unbind(handlers)
subject
The element(s) to unbind the event listeners from.
handlers
An object whose keys are the event types and the values the callbacks. For details about what these can be, read about the type and callback arguments below.
$$('input[type="range"]')._.unbind({
	"input change": function(evt) { this.title = this.value},
})
subject = $.unbind(subject, [type[, callback]])
subject = subject._.unbind([type[, callback]])
subject
The element(s) to unbind the event listeners from.
type
The event type. You can include multiple event types by space-separating them. If using Bliss Full: You can also unbind by class (e.g. click.foo or even just .foo to unbind all events with that class). You can also unbind all listeners on the element, by not providing any arguments.
callback
The callback. If using Bliss Full, this is optional. If not provided, all callbacks matching the event type and/or class specified by type will be unbound.
document.body._.events({
	"click.foo mousedown.foo": function(e) { console.log("foo", e.type)},
	"click.bar mousedown.bar": function(e) { console.log("bar", e.type)},
});
// Clicking on the body now prints foo mousedown, bar mousedown, foo click, bar click
document.body._.unbind(".foo");
// Clicking on the body now prints bar mousedown, bar click
document.body._.unbind("click");
// Clicking on the body now prints only bar mousedown
document.body._.unbind(); // unbind ALL events
// Clicking on the body now does nothing
jQuery.fn.unbind

fire

Fire a synthesized event.

subject = $.fire(subject, type [, properties])
subject = subject._.fire(type [, properties])
subject
The element(s) to fire the synthesized event on.
type
The event type.
properties
If provided, these properties will be added to the event object.
// Fire a custom event on a map widget
myMap._.fire("locationchange", {
	location: [42.361667, -71.092751]
});
// Fire a fake input event
myInput._.fire("input");
jQuery.fn.trigger

once

Set event listeners that will be fired once per callback per element.

subject = $.once(subject, handlers)
subject = subject._.once(handlers)
subject = subject = subject._.set({once: handlers})
subject
The element(s) to set the event listeners on.
handlers
An object whose keys are the events and the values the listeners. You can include multiple event types by space-separating them.
jQuery.fn.one

ready

Execute code after the DOM is ready.

var promise = $.ready([context])
context
The document whose …readiness we’re interested in.
promise
A promise that gets resolved immediately if the DOM is already ready, or on DOMContentLoaded if not.
// Add a red border to all divs on a page
$.ready().then(function(){
	$$("div")._.style({ border: "1px solid red" });
});
jQuery.fn.ready

Objects & Arrays

all

Run a method on all elements of an array, get the results as an array.

var ret = $.all(array, method [, args...])
var ret = array._.all(method [, args...])
array
The array whose every element we want to run a method on.
method
The method name
args
Any arguments to pass to the method
ret
The array of results. If the method returns no results, this will be the same as array.
// Uppercase all strings in an array
["Foo", "bar"]._.all("toUpperCase"); // Returns ["FOO", "BAR"]

Class

Helper for defining OOP-like “classes”, for those who have been irreparably damaged by Java-like languages.

var myClass = $.Class(options);
options
An object with the following options:
constructor
The constructor.
extends
The “class” it inherits from.
abstract
If true, “classes” can inherit from it, but it will throw an error if called with the new operator directly. Sorry Java folks, I know this is not what you hoped for.
lazy
Lazily evaluated properties. See $.lazy().
live
See $.live().
static
Any static methods, as a shortcut to $.extend(myClass, static)
*
Any remaining properties will be added on myClass.prototype as instance methods.

each

Loop over properties of an object and map them onto another object.

var ret = $.each(obj, callback [, ret]);
obj
The object to loop over
callback
The function to be executed for every property. It will be called with obj as its context and the property and value as its arguments.
ret
The returned object. If not provided, a new object will be created. Provide the same object as obj to overwrite.

extend

Copy properties of an object onto another.

target = $.extend(target, source [, whitelist])
target
The object that will receive the new properties.
source
An object containing the additional properties to merge in.
whitelist
If array or string, a whitelist of property names. If function, it is called on each property and only the properties it returns a truthy value on will be copied. If it’s a regular expression, only matching property names will be copied.
var o1 = {foo: 1, bar:2}
o2 = $.extend(o1, {foo: 3, baz: 4});
// o2 is {foo: 3, bar: 2, baz: 4}
// Get typography-related computed style on <body>
var type = $.extend({},
                    getComputedStyle(document.body),
                    /^font|^lineHeight$/);
jQuery.extend

lazy

Define lazily evaluated properties on an object.

object = $.lazy(object, property, getter)
object
The object to define the property on.
property
The name of the property to define.
getter
A function that returns the value of the property. After the first time the property is used, it will be replaced with the return value of this function.
object = $.lazy(object, properties)
object
The object to define the properties on.
properties
An object where the keys are the property names and the values are the getters.

live

Define properties that behave like normal properties but also execute code upon getting/setting.

object = $.live(object, property, descriptor)
object
The object to define the property on.
property
The name of the property to define.
descriptor
If an object, an accessor descriptor of the property. If a function, it will be assumed to be executed upon setting the property.
$.live(object, properties)
object
The object to define the properties on.
properties
An object where the keys are the property names and the values are the descriptors.

type

Determine the internal JavaScript [[Class]] of an object.

var type = $.type(object)
object
The object whose [[Class]] we want to get.
type
The internal [[Class]] of the object, lowercased.
// Check if the second argument of a function is a regexp
if ($.type(arguments[1]) == "regexp") {
	// ...
}
jQuery.type

value

Get the value of a nested property reference if it exists, and undefined without any errors if not.

var val = $.value([obj, ] property1, [property2 [,...[, propertyN]]])
obj
The object to use as the root of the property chain. If not provided, self will be used
property1, ..., propertyN
The properties to resolve on the root object. Order denotes hierarchy.
$.value(document, "body", "nodeType"); // 1
$.value(document, "body", "foo", "bar", "baz"); // undefined, no errors
$.value("document", "body", "nodeType"); // 1, no root, starting from self

Async

fetch

Helper for AJAX calls, inspired by the new Fetch API.

var promise = $.fetch(url, options)
url
The URL to which the request is sent.
options
An object with options, including:
method
The HTTP method, such as "GET" or "POST".
data
Any data to send, as a URLencoded parameter string.
headers
Object with any extra headers to set.
*
Any remaining properties will be set on the XMLHttpObject directly.
promise
A promise that is resolved when the resource is successfully fetched and rejected if there is any error. When the request is successful, the promise resolves with the XHR object. When the request fails, the promise rejects with an Error whose message is a description of the error. The error object also contains two properties: xhr which points to the XHR object, and status which returns the status code (e.g. 404). In case you need to abort the request, the xhr is returned in a field on the promise, so you can: promise.xhr.abort().
$.fetch("/api/create", {
	method: "POST",
	responseType: "json"
}).then(function(){
	alert("success!");
}).catch(function(error){
	console.error(error, "code: " + error.status);
});

Hooks: fetch-args

jQuery.ajax

include

Include a script file conditionally and run code after it has loaded.

var promise = $.include([condition,] url)
condition
Optional condition. If truthy, it means the script is already loaded and nothing will be fetched.
url
URL of the script to load.
promise
A promise that is resolved when the script has loaded or immediately, if condition is truthy.
// Load ES5-shim if needed
var url = "https://cdnjs.cloudflare.com/ajax/libs/es5-shim/4.3.1/es5-sham.min.js";
$.include(Array.prototype.forEach, url).then(function(){
	$$("div").forEach(function(){
		// some code here
	});
});
// Load dropbox.js from a CDN if it’s not already loaded and run some code that uses it
var url = "https://cdnjs.cloudflare.com/ajax/libs/dropbox.js/0.10.2/dropbox.min.js";
$.include(self.Dropbox, url).then(function(){
	var client = new Dropbox.Client({ key: key });
	// ...
});
jQuery.getScript

Extensibility

add

Register new blissful methods that operate on elements and/or arrays. They will be automatically added on Bliss’ element and array property (if on Bliss Full), as well as directly on Bliss itself.

$.add(name, callback [, on])
name
The function name.
callback
A function which operates on a single element, as its context (the this keyword). $.add() will take care of the syntactic variations and array handling.
on
What the function should be added on. The available keys are: $, element, array and their values are true by default so only set them if you want to set them to false.
$.add(callbacks [, on])
callbacks
Multiple functions, as an object where the keys are the function names (see above) and the values are the callbacks (see above).
on
Same as above.

overload

Utility for wrapping a Bliss function to allows key values as seperate parameters, or as one object of many key values. Used internally in a number of Bliss functions.

$.overload(callback, start, end)
callback
The function that will be called once for each key value pair.
start
the index at which to start collecting arguments to be applied to he callback. Defaults to 1
end
The index of the arguments at which to stop collecting. Defaults to start + 1
var method = Bliss.overload(function (key, val) {
	console.log(key + " " + val);
}, 0);
method('name', 'Lea');
// name Lea
method({name: 'Lea', lang: 'javascript'});
// name Lea
// lang javascript
		
var method = Bliss.overload(function (param1, param2, key, val) {
	console.log(key + " " + val);
}, 2);
method(param, param, 'name', 'Lea');
// name Lea
method(param, param, {name: 'Lea', lang: 'javascript'});
// name Lea
// lang javascript
		

hooks.add

Register a function to be executed at a certain hook

$.hooks.add(name, callback);
name
The hook identifier.
callback
A function that accepts a sole parameter: env that contains different properties about the environment.
// Handle simple objects as data in $.fetch()
$.hooks.add("fetch-args", function(env) {
	if ($.type(env.data) === "object") {
-		env.data = Object.keys(env.data).map(function(key){
			return key + "=" + encodeURIComponent(o.data[key]);
		}).join("&");
-	}
});

hooks.run

Run all code associated with a hook. Mainly used internally, but can be used by plugins too.

$.hooks.run(name, env);
name
The hook identifier.
env
An object that describes the environment.
$.hooks.run("fetch-args", env);

Configuration

Bliss comes in two flavors: Bliss Full and Bliss Shy. Bliss Shy is slightly smaller, does not add any globals beyond Bliss, does not add its property to elements and arrays and does not wrap addEventListener and removeEventListener. Bliss Shy is recommended for inclusion in third-party libraries, whereas Bliss Full is recommended for cases where you control the host environment and care more about convenience than unobtrusiveness. This is a download option, but it can also be a runtime option, if you have downloaded Bliss Full. Just run this, before Bliss is included:

<script>self.Bliss = { shy: true };</script>
<script src="bliss.js"></script>

If you’re running Bliss Full, but want to change the property name from _ to something else, you can also do this via the property configuration option. For example, to change the property name to yolo:

<script>self.Bliss = { property: "yolo" };</script>
<script src="bliss.js"></script>

As of now, these are the only configuration options, but there might be more in the future.